Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory

This simple grid diagram illustrates Howard Gardner’s model of the seven Multiple Intelligences at a glance.

Intelligence Type Capability and Perception
Linguistic

Words and language

Logical-Mathematical

Logic and numbers

Musical

Music, sound, rhythm

Bodily-Kinesthetic

Body movement control

Spatial-Visual

Images and space

Interpersonal

Other people’s feelings

Intrapersonal

Self-awareness

GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES – DETAIL

S. No. Intelligence Type Description Typical Roles Related tasks, Activities or Tests Preferred Learning Style Clues

1

Linguistic

Words and language, written and spoken; retention interpretation and explanation of ideas and information via language, understands relationship between communication and meaning

Writers, lawyers, journalists, speakers, trainers, copy-writers, English teachers, poets, editors, linguists, translators, PR consultants, media consultants, TV and radio presenters, voice-over artistes

Write a set of instructions; speak on a subject; edit a written piece or work; write a speech; commentate on an event; apply positive or negative ‘spin’ to a story

Words and languages

2.

Logical-Mathematical

Logical thinking, detecting patterns, scientific reasoning and deduction; analyse problems, perform mathematical calculations, understands relationship between cause and effect towards a tangible outcome or result

Scientists, engineers, computer experts, accountants, statisticians, researchers, analysts, traders, bankers, negotiators, deal-makers, trouble-shooters, directors

Perform a mental arithmetic calculation; create a process to measure something difficult; analyse how a machine works; create a process; devise a strategy to achieve an aim; assess the value of a business or a proposition

Numbers and logic

3.

Musical

Musical ability, awareness, appreciation and use of sound; recognition of tonal and rhythmic patterns, understands relationship between sound and feeling

Musicians, singers, composers, DJ’s, music producers, piano tuners, acoustic engineers, entertainers, party-planners, environment and noise advisors, voice coaches

Perform a musical piece; sing a song; review a musical work; coach someone to play a musical instrument; specify mood music for telephone systems and receptions

Music, sounds, rhythm

4.

Bodily-Kinesthetic

Body movement control, manual dexterity, physical agility and balance; eye and body coordination

Dancers, demonstrators, actors, athletes, divers, sports-people, soldiers, fire-fighters, PTI’s, performance artistes; ergonomists, osteopaths, fishermen, drivers, crafts-people; gardeners, chefs, acupuncturists, healers, adventurers

Uggle; demonstrate a sports technique; flip a beer-mat; create a mime to explain something; toss a pancake; fly a kite; coach workplace posture, assess workstation ergonomics,

Physical experience and movement, touch and feel

5.

Spatial-Visual

Visual and spatial perception; interpretation of visual images; pictorial imagination and expression; understands relationship between space and effect

Artists, designers, cartoonists, story-boarders, architects, photographers, sculptors, town-planners, visionaries, inventors, engineers, cosmetics and beauty consultants

Design a costume; interpret a painting; create a room layout; create a corporate logo; design a building; pack a suitcase or the boot of a car

Pictures, shapes, images, 3D space

6.

Interpersonal

Perception of other people’s feelings; ability to relate to others; interpretation of behaviour and communications; understands the relationships between people and their situations, including other people

Therapists, HR professionals, mediators, leaders, counsellors, politicians, educators, sales people, clergy, psychologists, teachers, doctors, healers, organisers, carers, advertising professionals, coaches and mentors;(there is clear association between this type of intelligence and what is now termed “Emotional Intelligence” or(EQ)

Interpret moods from facial expressions; demonstrate feelings through body language; affect the feelings of others in a planned way; coach or counsel another person

Human contact, communications, cooperation, teamwork

7.

Intrapersonal

Self-awareness, personal cognisance, personal cognisance, personal objectivity, the capability to understand oneself, one’s relationship to others and the world, and one’s own need for, and reaction to change

Arguably anyone(see note below) who is self –aware and involved in the process of changing personal thoughts, beliefs and behaviour in relation to their situation, other people, their purpose and aims- in this respect there is a similarity to Maslow’s self-Actualisation level, and again there is clear association between intelligence and what is now termed “Emotional Intelligence” or (EQ)

Consider and decide one’s own aims and personal changes required to achieve them (not necessarily reveal this to others); consider one’s own ‘Johari Window’, and decide options for development; consider and decide one’s own position in the relation to Emotional Intelligence model

Self-reflection, self-discovery