Can walk around obstacles and walk more erect
Can sit on the heels for long periods while playing
Climbs stairs unassisted (but not with alternating feet)
Balances on one foot for a few moments, jumps up and down, but may fall
Climbs up on chair, turns around and sits down
Uses feet to propel wheeled riding toys
Often achieves Toilet Training during this year
Throws large ball underhand without losing balance. Holds cup or glass in one hand. Unbuttons large buttons; unzips large zippers
Opens doors by turning doorknobs
Grasps crayon with fist; scribbles enthusiastically on large paper
Stacks 4-6 objects on top of one another
Enjoys pouring and filling activities-sand, water, peanuts etc.
Realizes that language is important for making others respond to needs and preferences.
Receptive language is more developed than expressive language; two year olds can understand significantly more than what they can speak.
Enjoys getting involved in reading, but needs to be kept involved by pointing, making relevant noises, turning pages.
Uses 50-100 different words, vocabulary continuously increasing
Utters 3-4 word statements
Has broken the linguistic code i.e. frame their own words and much of their talk has meaning to them only
Repeatedly asks, “What’s that?”
Refers to self as “Me” or sometimes “I” rather than by name. Can easily speak “Mine”
Expresses negative statements by using negative words such as “no” or “not”. Example:“Not more milk”
Uses some plurals
Some stammering and other dysfluencies are common
Speech is about 65-70 percent understandable
Eye-hand movement better coordinated; can put objects together, can take them apart; can fit larger puzzles
Begins to use objects for different purposes (may push a block around as boat)
Does simple classification tasks (separates toy animal from toy cars)
Stares for long moments; gets fascinated by the situation: where the ball has rolled, where a noise is coming from etc.
Involves in self selected activities for longer periods of time. Discovering cause and effect: spilling water makes clothes wet
Knows where familiar persons should be; notes their absence; finds hidden objects by looking in previous hiding place first.
Names objects in picture books; may pretend to pick something off the page and taste or smell it.
Recognizes and expresses pain and its location.
Social and Emotional Development
Shows signs of empathy and caring: comforts another child if hurt or frightened; sometimes overly affectionate in offering hugs and kisses to children
Continues to use physical aggression if frustrated or angry; it usually lessens as verbal skills improve
Temper tantrums (bad temper)usually peak up at this age
Impatient; finds it difficult to wait or take turns
Enjoys “helping” with household chores; imitates everyday activities like feeding a doll etc.
“Bossy” with parents, orders them around, makes demands and expects immediate compliance from them.
Watches and imitates play of other children, but seldom joins in; content to play alone
Offers toys to other children, but is usually possessive of playthings
Making choices is difficult; wants it both ways
Often rebellious ; shouting “no” becomes automatic
Ritualistic; wants everything “just so”; belongings placed “where they belong”
Walks up and down stairs unassisted, using alternating feet; may jump from bottom step, landing on both feet
Can walk on one foot, balance momentarily
Can kick big ball-shaped objects
Needs minimal assistance eating
Jumps on the spot
Pedals a small tricycle
Throws a ball overhand; aim and distance are limited
Catches a large bounced ball with both arms extended
Enjoys swinging on a swing (not too high or too fast)
Shows improved control of crayons; uses vertical, horizontal or circular strokes
Holds crayon or marker between two fingers and thumb (tripod grasp)
Can turn pages of a book one at a time
Enjoys building with blocks: builds a tower of 8 or more blocks
Enjoys playing with clay
May begin to show hand dominance (lefty/righty)
Carries a container of liquid (cup etc.) without much spilling; pours liquid from one container to another
Manages larger buttons and zippers on clothing
Washes and dries hands; brushes own teeth, but not thoroughly
Usually achieves complete bladder control
Listens attentively to age appropriate stories
Makes relevant comments during stories, especially those related to home and family events
Enjoys stories with guessing and suspense
Likes to look at books and pretend may pretend to “read” to others or explain pictures
Stacks objects in sized order and can make a pyramid
Uses objects symbolically in play: block of wood may be a truck, a bat etc.
Speech is understandable most of the time
Produces expanded noun phrase: “big, brown dog”
Produces verbs with “ing” endings; uses “ –s” to indicate more than one
Indicates negatives by inserting “no” or “not” before a simple noun or verb phrase : “Not baby”
Answers “what are you doing?”, “what is this?”, and “where?” questions dealing with familiar objects and events.
Friendly; laughs frequently; is eager to please
Has occasional nightmares and fears the dark, monsters, or fire
Joins in simple games and group activities, sometimes hesitantly
Often talks to self
Observes other children playing; may join in for a short while; often plays parallel to other children
Defends toys and possessions; may become aggressive at times by grabbing a toy, hiding toys, hitting other children
Engages in self-believe play alone or with other children
Show affection to children who are younger or who get hurt
Sits and listens to stories up to 10 minutes at a time; does not bother other children listening to a story and dislikes being bothered.
May continue to have a special blanket, stuffed animal or toy for comfort.
Walks a straight line
Hops on one foot
Pedals and steers a wheeled toy with confidence; turns corners, avoids obstacles and oncoming traffic
Climbs ladder, trees, playground equipments
Jumps over objects 5 or 6 inches high; lands with both feet together
Runs, starts, stops and moves around obstacles with ease
Throws a ball overhand; distance and aim improving
Builds a tower with 10 or more blocks
Forms shapes and objects out of lay: cookies, snakes, simple animals
Paints and draws with purpose; may have an idea in mind, but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else
Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and bolts with hammer
Threads small wooden beads on a string
Can run in a circle
Can recognize that certain words sound similar
Names 18-20 uppercase (A, B, C etc.) letters. Writes several letters.
A few children are beginning to read simple books, such as alphabet books with only a few words per page and many pictures
Likes stories about how things grow and how things operate
Delights in wordplay, creating silly language
Understands the concepts of “tallest”, “biggest”, “same”, “more”; selects the picture that has the “most houses” or the “biggest dog”
Counts to 20 or more
Understands the sequence of daily events: “when we get up in the morning, we brush, get dressed, have breakfast and go to school.”
When looking at pictures, can recognize and identify missing puzzle parts (of person, car, animal)
Uses the prepositions “on”, “in”, and “under”
Uses possessives consistently: “hers”, “theirs”, “baby’s”
Answers “whose”, “who”, “why”, and “how many”
Produces elaborate sentence structures
Speech is almost entirely understandable
Begins to correctly use the past tense of verbs: “I played football”
Refers to activities, events, objects and people that are not present
Changes tone of voice and sentence structure to adapt to listener’s level of understanding: to baby brother, “Milk gone?” To mother, “Did the baby drink all of his milk?”
States first and last name, gender, sibling’s names, and sometimes own telephone number.
Answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired, cold, or hungry. Recites and sings simple songs and rhymes.
Outgoing; friendly; over enthusiastic at times
Moods change rapidly and unpredictably; may throw tantrums over minor frustrations; sulk over being left out
Imaginary playmates or companions are common; holds conversations and shares strong emotions with this invisible friend
Boasts, exaggerates and bends the truth with made up stories
Cooperates with others; participates in group activities
Shows pride in accomplishments; seeks frequent adult approval
Often appears selfish
Insists on trying to do things independently, but may get frustrated when problems arise: paper airplanes that will not fold right
Enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities
Relies (most of the time) on verbal rather than physical aggression; may yell angrily
Name calling and taunting are often used as ways of excluding other children
Establishes close relationships with playmates;
Beginning to have best friends.